What is Column ? TYPES OF COLUMN

What is Column?

  • We knew that in a framed structure A vertical structural member which can transmit the load from the slab, beam along with its self-weight to the foundation is called column.
  • Why we provide column?
    • Columns carry axial loads and therefore are designed for compression.
    • Other loads from snow, wind or other horizontal forces can cause bending in the columns.
    • We shall build up a small size structure by RR masonry at a certain height but the multi-story building cannot be constructed by RR masonry because the structure can able to transmit the heavy load to the foundation.
    • Basically, a column designed to distribute the compressive axial load & additional forces like snow, wind to the foundation eventually & it could be sustained the structure even in the earthquake or any other force majeure.
    • Column- Based on Shape & Reinforcement
      1. Square/Rectangular Column
      2. Composite/Encased Column
      3. Circular Column
      4. Y Type Column
      5. T Type Column
      6. L Type Column

      Square/Rectangular Column

      • Most of the building structure was constructed by square or rectangular column. Significantly both are having same components and it is differ based on its architect view.
      • These type of column was economically good and easy to do shuttering, placing reinforcement & Concrete.
      • Composite/Encased Column
        • A vertical structural element, with a combination of steel section & concrete it is called as encased or composite column.
        • The composite column mostly provided for truss structure to avoid the steel corroded by any type of chemical.

        Circular Column

        • The bending resistant is higher than square/rectangular column.
        • It occupies the lesser area.
        • Square/rectangular column reinforcement minimum 4 nos of steel will be places in the corner but in a circular column provide more than 4 nos.
        • Mostly in building circular column provided for the aesthetic purpose.
        • Economically it is little high to compare to square or rectangular column.
        • Y-type Column
          • These type of column mostly using for bridges construction.
          • The design of bridges to sustain the dead load of the structure & live load of the vehicle motion, the load was eventually distributed to the column.
          • T-type Column
            • These type of column having same features like square/Rectangular type column.
            • Mostly it was provided along with retaining wall or boundary wall based on design requirement.
            • L-type Column
              • The L type column has used in boundary wall construction and heavy type L column was used in the turning of metro rail or bridges construction.

              Column- Based on Load

              1. Axial Load Column
              2. Uniaxial Load Column
              3. Bi-Axial Load Column
              4. Eccentric Load Column

              Axial Load Column

              • The entire load passes through the centre axis of the column which coincides with the X-axis, it is called Axial Load.
              • The load shall be either compression or tensile load.

              Uniaxial Load Column

              • The eccentric load act on either X axis or Y axis it is called Uni axial load column.

              Bi-Axial Load Column

              • The eccentric load act on either X axis or Y axis it is called Uni axial load column.

              Eccentric Load Column

              • The load shall pass parallel to the centre axis of the member but act on its cross-section that’s called Eccentric load.

              Column- Based on Slenderness Ratio

              • The length of the column divided by its radius of gyration, it is called slenderness ratio of the column.
              • The slenderness ratio is used to find out the buckling stress of the column.
              1. Long Column
              2. Short Column

              Long Column

              • Slenderness ratio of the column is greater than 12 it is called long column.
              • The column may fail on both compression & buckling load.

              Short Column

              • Slenderness ratio of the column is less than 12 it is called short column.
              • The sort column may fail by compression stress.